Oh well, just another monument, you might think. Think again, for the Soviet War Memorial in Treptow Park is the 'mother of all memorials', epic in proportion and gravitas. Incidentally, it is Mother Russia herself who greets visitors approaching the memorial from the northern end. Hewn in sandstone, she is shown grieving for the loss of her sons, 5000 of whom lie buried beneath the memorial grounds, killed in 1945 during World War II's final Soviet assault on Berlin. Behind the sculpture, a portal flanked by two kneeling soldiers was made from red granite scavenged from Hitler's New Reich Chancellery. It gives way to a vast 'cemetery' field overlooked by a 12m-high statue of a Soviet soldier standing over a broken swastika. The memorial opened in 1949 and is one of three Soviet war memorials in Berlin.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: Though pompous and bombastic, this memorial aptly captures the enormity of the loss of Soviet lives on the battlefields of World War II.
Andrea's expert tip: The memorial is just a short walk from the Spree River bank, where you'll find beer gardens and boat rentals. River cruises depart from landing docks just south of the Treptower Park S-Bahn station.
With its zigzag outline and silvery zinc façade, the exterior of Berlin's Jewish Museum, a masterpiece by Daniel Libeskind, is as bold as it is beautiful. While the expansive exhibit does address the 12 years of Nazi terror, its focus is actually on the entire 2000 years of social, political and cultural history of Jews in Germany. Before reaching the galleries visitors descend down into the basement with its three walkways called 'axes', each symbolizing a different Jewish experience: the Axis of Emigration leads to an outside garden, the Axis of the Holocaust dead-ends in a hollow space and the Axis of Continuity leads up a steep staircase to the galleries.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This architectural masterpiece by Daniel Libeskind is a 3D-metaphor for the complex and often difficult history of the Jewish people in Germany and beyond.
Andrea's expert tip: Your ticket to the Jewish Museum is also good for discounted admission to the nearby Berlinische Galerie, which showcases art created in Berlin from 1870 to today.
What was daily life like behind the Iron Curtain? That's the '$64,000 question' this museum, which is as educational as it is fun and interactive, seeks to answer. Themed galleries train the spotlight on such topics as travel, education, family, holidays, prison and opposition. Stop to hitch a virtual ride in an East German car (called Trabi), learn about the sinister machinations of the Stasi spy network or nose around a typical housing estate apartment. A nice place to wrap up a visit is in the attached 'Domklause' restaurant where you'll find out what's behind a dish called Falscher Hase (False Rabbit) or if an East German Ketwurst tasted any different from a hot dog.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This museum peels back the curtain on an extinct society in an entertaining and educational fashion.
Andrea's expert tip: After your museum visit, relax on a scenic hour-long river cruise through Berlin's historic centre. Boats leave right outside the museum.
Historic landmarks stare you in the face wherever you go in Berlin. That's why the postmodern hi-rises of Potsdamer Platz, Berlins' newest city quarter, actually provide a modicum of relief from the weight of the past. Of course, it too reflects Berlin history, having been the city's entertainment hub before World War II only to become part of the Berlin Wall death strip in 1961. What you see today is all late 20th century architectural ingenuity by some of the profession's finest practitioners, including Renzo Piano, Helmut Jahn and Richard Rodgers. Of the three wedge-shaped areas, the central one - called Sony Center - is the most visually stunning. It's anchored by an outdoor plaza flanked by shops, restaurants and movie theaters and lidded by a tent-like structure that lights up in a rainbow of colors after dark.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: There are not many cities in the world that have witnessed the rebirth of an entire city quarter.
Andrea's expert tip: Go on a discovery tour of free outdoor sculpture by such contemporary heavyweights as Jeff Koons and Robert Rauschenberg dotted around Potsdamer Platz.
Germany's central Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe is devoted to remembering the millions of Jews who perished in the Nazi-orchestrated Holocaust. New York architect Peter Eisenman came up with a simple but powerful design to convey the enormity of its message: a massive maze of 2711 stelae (concrete slabs) of identical size but varying heights and angles tightly arranged in a grid over undulating ground. Each visitor is free to walk among them, sit on them, take photographs and find a personal connection to the site. A subterranean exhibit provides context, often in harrowing fashion, by training the spotlight on the fate of individual people and families. The darkened Rooms of Names, in which short bios of Jewish victims are read out loud, is especially emotional.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This vast memorial in the heart of the city captures the unspeakable horror of the Holocaust in abstract but surprisingly emotional fashion.
Andrea's expert tip: There are two more memorials honoring Nazi victims nearby: one dedicated to gays and lesbians across the street on the edge of Tiergarten Park and another commemorating the persecution of Sinti and Roma, also in the park, between the Reichstag and Brandenburg Gate.
This stately palace had rather modest beginnings in 1699 as the summer villa of Sophie-Charlotte, wife of Elector Friedrich III. After Friedrich's promotion to king in 1701, he hired Swedish architect Johann Nering Eosander to expand the structure. Subsequent Prussian rulers continued to dabble with the palace, resulting in today's grand edifice whose façade is 500m long, only 70m less than Versailles. It flanks a lavish baroque garden with several outbuildings, including a royal mausoleum and the Belvedere pleasure palace. The oldest section of the main palace is the Altes Schloss (Old Palace), which contains Friedrich and Sophie-Charlotte's private quarters as well as an oak-paneled banquet hall, the royal chapel and an Asian porcelain collection. The frilliest rooms are in the Neuer Flügel (New Wing), added by Frederick the Great in the 1740s but closed for restoration until at least late 2014.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This is the biggest remaining Prussian palace in town and a great place to catch a glimpse of royal life.
Andrea's expert tip: If you want to see the entire palace compound, getting a day pass saves some money. Avoid visiting on Monday or Tuesday when some buildings are closed. Access to the gardens is free.
Federal government buildings tend to be imposing and the Reichstag, home of Germany's parliament (the Bundestag), is certainly no exception. Paul Wallot created the blueprint for this stately behemoth that opened in 1894, was badly damaged in World War II and lingered largely ignored on the western side of the Berlin Wall during the Cold War. In the mid-1990s, artists Christo and Jeanne-Claude wrapped it in shiny fabric and shortly thereafter starchitect Lord Norman Foster got to work on the building's renovation, adding its shiny glass dome. It's well worth making a prior reservation for the lift ride to the roof terrace and the stroll up a spiraling ramp to the top of the dome. Not only do you get sweeping city views but also a chance to peer down into the plenary hall.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: Lord Foster's glass dome is an architectural masterpiece and, on a clear day, panoramic views from up here will have burning up the pixels.
Andrea's expert tip: Online reservations through www.bundestag.de are easy and free but should be made several weeks prior to your visit in the busy summer months.
Berlin's most popular museum is like a veritable Aladdin's Cave - only that the treasures are not oil lamps and coin-spilling chests but monumental structures and sculptures from Greece, Rome, Babylon and other ancient cultures. The key sight, and what everyone comes to see, is the namesake Pergamon Altar which predates Christ's birth by around 150 years. The bulk of the structure is neatly juxtaposed by the remarkably fine detail of its decorative frieze, which depicts the gods in battle with the giants. The Pergamon Altar is the mere overture to an entire symphony of archaeological stunners. Don't miss the Babylonian Ishtar Gate, the 17m-high Roman Market Gate of Miletus, the façade of a Caliph's palace and the Aleppo Room from Syria.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This trove of ancient treasures never fails to impress and is the one museum in Berlin that you should not miss.
Andrea's expert tip: Budget at least 2 hours to do this museum justice and make use of the free audio-guide to deepen your experience. Also note that some exhibits may not be on view while the museum is undergoing extensive renovation.
It's more than a tad ironic that Berlin's most popular tourist attraction is one that actually no longer exists. From 1961 to 1989, the Berlin Wall was the most potent symbol of the Cold War. You can still find bits and pieces of this ugly concrete barrier around town, but only at the Berlin Wall Memorial has the entire border system been recreated to help people visualize what it looked like and how it worked. The open-air exhibition follows a 1.2km stretch of Bernauer Strasse and incorporates a short section of original Wall. At multimedia stations, you can listen to historic recordings, watch short films or learn about daring escape attempts. The documentation centre at the corner of Ackerstrasse is closed for renovation until late 2014, but you can still climb up the tower next to it for a birds-eye view of the memorial.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This is the only place in town where you get a sense of the the complex multilevel barriers that made up the Berlin Wall.
Andrea's expert tip: Don't miss the free exhibit 'Border Stations and Ghost Stations in Divided Berlin' in the S-Bahn station Nordbahnhof, next to the memorial.
The last of Berlin's surviving city gates is also one of its most photographed landmarks. And no wonder, for this splendid 12-columned triumphal arch linking the vast Tiergarten city park and the elegant boulevard Unter den Linden is indeed a visual stunner. Its design sprang from the fevered brow of the prolific Carl Gotthard Langhans who looked to Athens and the Acropolis for inspiration. Two years after the gate's completion in 1791, Johann Gottfried Schadow's 'Quadriga' sculpture was hoisted to the top. The monumental bronze shows the Roman goddess of Victory charging east on a chariot drawn by four horses. Napoleon kidnapped the lady in 1806 but she safely returned in 1814. During the Cold War, the Brandenburg Gate was trapped on the eastern side of the Berlin Wall, making it a potent symbol of the city's division.
Recommended for Best Attractions & Activities because: This symbol of Cold War division is now a symbol of German reunification.
Andrea's expert tip: Stop by the tourist office in the south wing for information or take a break from sightseeing in the meditation room in the north wing.